EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HEAVY METALS ON α-AMYLASE ACTIVITY ISOLATED FROM COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.) GROWN ON CONTAMINATED SOIL FROM KACHIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors

  • Sadiya Alka
  • Hadiza Musa
  • Abdullahi Salihu
  • Mu'awiya Abarshi Musa

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Recently, heavy metals reaching food crops is becoming the world concerns and their effect on humans. To avoid this, plants are used to reduce certain contamination of heavy metals. In this paper, heavy metal concentrations and alpha-amylase activity in plants grown on the contaminated soil was investigated. The objectives of the study were; to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in cowpea plant grown on contaminated soils, to extract and characterize Alpha amylase from the plant. Soil and cowpea plant samples obtained from polluted and unpolluted (control) area, as well as cowpea seed variety samples (7) obtained from IAR ABU Zaria, were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The alpha-amylase activity was also determined using a conventional method. Correlation analysis was also done among heavy metals in the soil and the leaves. Michaelis constants (Km) and maximal rates of substrate hydrolysis (Vmax) were determined Using Lineweaver-Burke plot. The plants grown on contaminated soil showed synergistic effect on the removal of Pb 109 mg/ml and Fe 49.5 mg/ml. The result of the correlation analysis for Cu, Pb and Fe showed positive relationships among these heavy metals in both contaminated and uncontaminated soils while Zn showed a negative correlation. The activity of the enzyme 30.0 µmole/min was found to be higher in seeds when compared with other samples. The enzyme optimum pH showed mixed activity due to iso-enzymes. The optimum temperature 600C produced activity of 10 µmole/min. The results imply that, plants growing in the vicinity of land used for military activities may pose some negative effect on the alpha-amylase activity and may affect the food chain.

Keywords: Heavy Metal; Removal; Alpha-Amylase; Cowpea; Military Activities

Author Biographies

Sadiya Alka

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Bauchi State University, Gadau

Hadiza Musa

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri.

Abdullahi Salihu

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.

Mu'awiya Abarshi Musa

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.

References

Porfirif MC, Milatich EJ, Farruggia BM, & Romanini D. Production of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae for Several Industrial Applications in a Single Step. Journal of Chromatography B. 2016: 1022, 87-92.

Emtenani S, Asoodeh A, & Emtenani S. Gene cloning and characterization of a thermostable organic-tolerant α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis DR8806. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2015: 72, 290-288.

Pancha I, Jain D, Shrivastav A, Mishra SK, Shethia B, Mishra S, Mohandas VP, Jha B. A thermoactive α-amylase from a Bacillus sp. isolated from CSMCRI salt farm. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2010:47(2), 288-291.

Liu N, Liang G, Dong X, Qi X, Kim J, Piao Y. Stabilized Magnetic Enzyme Aggregates on Graphene Oxide for High Performance Phenol and Bisphenol A Removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2016: 306,1026-1034.

Luo K, Yang Q, Li XM, Yang GJ, Liu Y, Wang DB, Zheng W, & Zeng GM. Hydrolysis Kinetics in Anaerobic Digestion of Waste Activated Sludge Enhanced by α-amylase. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 2012:1562, 17-21.

Mehta D, & Satyanarayana T. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Recombinant Acidic and Thermostable Raw-Starch Hydrolysing α-Amylase from an Extreme Thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 2013:85, 229-238.

Sajedi RH, Naderi-Manesh H, Khajeh K, Ahmadvand R, Ranjbar B, Asoodeh A, & Moradian F. A Ca-Independent α-Amylase that is Active and Stable at Low pH from the Bacillus sp. KR-8104. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 2005:36(5-6), 666-671.

Tešan Tomić N, Smiljanić S, Jović M, Gligorić M, Povrenović D, Došić A. Examining the Effects of the Destroying Ammunition, Mines and Explosive Devices on the Presence of Heavy Metals in Soil of Open Detonation Pit; Part 2: Determination of Heavy Metal Fractions. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2018:229, 1-20.

Greičiūtė K, & S. Vasarevičius. Modelling of Pollution with Lead in Shooting Ranges of Gaižiūnai Military Ground. 2006:55,15-23.

Connell DW, Lam P, Richardson B, & Wu R. Introduction to Ecotoxicology. John Wiley & Sons; 2009.

Peng, C, Chen S, Shen C, He M, Zhang Y, Ye J, Liu J, & Shi J. Iron plaque: A Barrier Layer to the Uptake and Translocation of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Rice Plants. Environmental Science & Technology, 2018:52(21), 12244-12254.

Tangahu BV, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, & Mukhlisin M. A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants Through Phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2011.

Wang Z, Sun T, Driscoll CT, Yin Y, & Zhang X. Mechanism of accumulation of methylmercury in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in a mercury mining area. Environmental Science & Technology, 2018:52(17), 9749-9757.

Giller KE, Witter E, & Mcgrath SP. Toxicity of Heavy Metals to Microorganisms and Microbial Processes in Agricultural Soils: A Review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 1998: 30(10-11), 1389-1414.

Sandaa RA, Torsvik V, & Enger Ø. Influence of long-term heavy-metal contamination on microbial communities in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2001:33(3):287-295.

Moreno JL, Sanchez-Marín A, Hernández T, & García C. Effect of cadmium on microbial activity and a ryegrass crop in two semiarid soils. Environmental management, 2006:37, 626-633.

Wyszkowska J, & Kucharski J. Biochemical and Physicochemical Properties of Soil Contaminated with Herbicide Triflurotox 250 EC. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2004:13(2), 223-231.

Singh S, Zacharias M, Kalpana S, & Mishra S. Heavy Metals Accumulation and Distribution Pattern in Different Vegetable Crops. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 2012:4(10), 170-177.

Rani K. Immobilization of Glycine Max Amylase onto Variety of Chlorinated and Nitrated Fabrics (Silk, Nylon and Cotton). GSTF Journal of BioSciences. 2013: 1, (2).

Divrikli U, Saracoglu S, Soylak M, & Elçi L. Determination of Trace Heavy Metal Contents of Green Vegetable Samples from Kayseri-Turkey by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

Smolka-Danielowska D, & Fiedor D. Potentially Toxic Elements in Fly Ash Dependently of Applied Technology of Hard Coal Combustion. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018:25, 25091-25097.

Radwan MA, & Salama AK. Market Basket Survey for Some Heavy Metals in Egyptian Fruits and Vegetables. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2006:44(8), 1273-1278.

Parveen Z, Khuhro MI, & Rafiq N. Market Basket Survey for Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Nickel, and Zinc in Fruits and Vegetables. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2003:71(6), 1260.

Akoto O, Nimako C, Asante J, & Bailey D. Heavy Metals Enrichment in Surface Soil from Abandoned Waste Disposal Sites in a Hot and Wet Tropical Area. Environmental Processes, 2016:3, 747-761.

Demirezen D, & Aksoy A. Heavy Metal Levels in Vegetables in Turkey are within Safe Limits for Cu, Zn, Ni and Exceeded for Cd and Pb. Journal of Food Quality, 2006:29(3), 252-265.

Yusuf AA, Arowolo TA, Bamgbose O. Cadmium, Copper and Nickel Levels in Vegetables from Industrial and Residential Areas of Lagos City, Nigeria. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2003:41(3), 375-278.

Clemens S. Toxic Metal Accumulation, Responses to Exposure and Mechanisms of Tolerance in Plants. Biochimie, 2006:88(11), 1707-1719.

Kamal AK, Islam MR, Hassan M, Ahmed F, Rahman MA, & Moniruzzaman M. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Selected Plants within Amin Bazar landfill Site, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environmental Processes, 2016:3, 179-194.

Alam MG, Snow ET, & Tanaka A. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Contamination of Vegetables Grown in Samta Village, Bangladesh. Science of the Total Environment, 2003:308(1-3), 83-96.

Kabata-Pendias A. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. CRC press; 2000 Nov 8.

Itanna F. Metals in Leafy Vegetables Grown in Addis Ababa and Toxicological Implications. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2002:16(3), 295-302.

Nwaedozie G, Mohammed Y, Faruruwa DM, Nwaedozie JM. Environmental impact of toxic metal load in some military training areas within the one division of Nigerian Army, Kaduna, Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2013: 3(3),180.

Rascio N, Navari-Izzo F. Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulating Plants: How and Why do they do it? And What Makes them so Interesting?. Plant Science, 2011:180(2), 169-181.

Mahar A, Wang P, Ali A, Awasthi MK, Lahori AH, Wang Q, Li R, Zhang Z. Challenges and Opportunities in the Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils: a Review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2016:126, 111-121.

Oves M, Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahmad E. Soil Contamination, Nutritive Value, and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals: an Overview. Springer Vienna; 2012.

Sharma MR, Raju NS. Correlation of Heavy Metal Contamination with Soil Properties of Industrial Areas of Mysore, Karnataka, India by Cluster Analysis. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 2013:2(10), 22-27.

Mar SS, Mori H, Lee JH, Fukuda K, Saburi W, Fukuhara A, Okuyama M, Chiba S, & Kimura A. Purification, Characterization, and Sequence Analysis of two α-Amylase Isoforms from Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis, Showing Different Affinity Towards β-Cyclodextrin Sepharose. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 2003: 67(5),1080-1093.

Mohamed SA, Al-Malki AL, & Kumosani TA. Partial Purification and Characterization of five α-Amylases from a Wheat Local Variety (Balady) during Germination. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 2009: 3, 1740-1748.

Kim JS, Hyun TK, & Kim MJ. The Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Sorghum, Foxtail Millet and Proso Millet on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Activities. Food Chemistry, 2011:124(4), 1647-1651.

Afrisham S, Badoei-Dalfard A, Namaki-Shoushtari A, & Karami Z. Characterization of a Thermostable, CaCl2-Activated and Raw-Starch Hydrolyzing Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis AT70: Production under Solid State Fermentation by Utilizing Agricultural Wastes. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 2016: 1;132, 98-106.

Chakraborty K, Bhattacharyya BK, & Sen SK. Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Folia Microbiologica. 2000:45, 207-210.

Oziengbe EO, & Onilude AA. Production of a Thermostable α-Amylase and its Assay using Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Excavated land Sites in Ibadan, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2012:5(1), 132-138.

Du R, Song Q, Zhang Q, Zhao F, Kim RC, Zhou Z, & Han Y. Purification and characterization of novel thermostable and Ca-independent α-amylase produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BH072. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2018:115, 1151-1156.

Satoh E, Uchimura T, Kudo T, & Komagata K. Purification, Characterization, and Nucleotide Sequence of an Intracellular Maltotriose-Producing Alpha-Amylase from Streptococcus bovis 148. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1997: 63(12), 4941-4944.

Downloads

Published

2023-10-06