• Mamman Ibrahim Alkali
  • Nasir Abdus-Salam
  • Musa Rabiu Abdullahi
  • Esther Ville
  • Mohammed Kyari Dikwa


Adsorption; Kinetics; Isotherms; Desert Date peels; Thermodynamics


The problem of poor or non-treatment of wastewater is often attributed to high cost of purification methods in our industries. Therefore, there is the need to provide alternative adsorbent of comparative effectiveness but develop from agro-based waste. The purpose of this research was to provide understanding of the mechanisms for the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions onto Desert Date peels as adsorbent. This was done through characterization and optimum adsorption conditions of Unmodified and Modified Desert Date Peels (UDD and MDD). A 3 M ZnCl2 was used for the modification of the desert date peel. The results for Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of UDD and MDD spectra show broad band peak at 3448.84 cm-1 and 3414.12 cm-1 which corresponds to O-H stretching mode of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the activated carbon. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions onto UDD and MDD are 94.06 and 80.56 mg/g being observed within 60 min. The adsorption isotherm study ascertains a good correlation coefficient which Langmuir isotherm fitted well into UDD and MDD with (R2) values 0.9893 and 0.9668 and UDD obeyed pseudo second order kinetics model. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption system was feasible, non-spontaneous and endothermic 6.684 and 8.675 kJ/mol for Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions respectively. The results showed that, both UDD and MDD have the potentials to be applied as alternative low-cost adsorbents in the remediation of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Adsorption; Kinetics; Isotherms; Desert Date peels; Thermodynamics 10.5281/zenodo.10580462


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