• Inuwa Bukar Lawan
  • Zaynab Muhammad Chellube
  • Joseph Clement Akan


Heavy Metals, Kwayakusar, Shani, Physicochemical, Soil


Kwayakusar and Shani local government areas are known for intensive agricultural activities for both commercial and consumption purposes and use tones of agrochemicals for soil amendment to improve harvest. These agrochemicals and other sources introduces heavy metals in the soil, hence, the need to access the level of some heavy metals and physicochemical parameters changes in the soil. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentration of the heavy metals in the soil. Determinations of pH, conductivity, cation exchange capacity (CEC) organic carbon, organic matter, calcium, sodium and potassium were carried out using standard methods. The pH of the soil from the two local government area ranged from 5.74E+00 to 6.54E+00, while electrical conductivity varies from 1.90E+01 to 4.11E+02 µScm-1with the highest concentration being observed in the soil from Gashina agricultural location at Kwayakusar local government area. The levels of cation exchange capacity ranged from 8.09E+00 to 6.92E+01 C.mol/kg with the highest concentration also detected in Gashina agricultural location from Kwayakusar local government area. Organic carbon in the soil samples from the two local governments’ agricultural locations ranged from 5.09E-01 to 4.06E+00 %, while organic matter varies from 1.17E+00 to 7.10E+00 %. The maximum percentage of 4.06E+00 % organic carbon was observed in the Gashina agricultural location at Kwayakusar local government area, while the minimum percentage of 5.09E-01 % was observed in the soil from Lukundum agricultural location in Shani local government area. For organic matter, the maximum percentage of 7.00E+00 % was detected in the soil from Gashina agricultural location at Kwayakusar local government area, while the minimum percentage of 1.17E+00 % was observed in the soil from Lukundum agricultural location at Shani local government area. Calcium ranged from 4.60E+00 to 2.10E+01 Mg/Kg; for sodium, it ranged from 5.00E-02 to 3.30E-01 Mg/Kg; while potassium ranged from 1.50E-01 to 2.94 mg/kg.  The level of Ca, Na and K in the soil samples from the two Local Government agricultural locations increases with increase in depth.Thus,the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils samples obtained from the present study were higher than the FAO standard.

Keywords: Heavy Metals; Kwayakusar; Shani; Physicochemical; Soil

Author Biographies

Inuwa Bukar Lawan

Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

Zaynab Muhammad Chellube

Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

Joseph Clement Akan

Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria


. Abubakar M, & Ayodele, JT. Metal Accumulation in Trace Sediments and in the Shell of two Species of Fresh Water Mollusks In Tiga Lake Kano. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2002:11: 81-90.

. Nwajei GE & Iwegbue CMA. Trace Metal Concentrations in Soils in the Vicinity of Uwelu Motor Spare Parts Market, Benin City Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 2007:32(2), 282-286.

. Inuwa M, Abdulrahman FW, Birnin-Yauri UA. & Ibrahim SA. Analytical Assessment of Some Trace Metals in Soils Around the Major Industrial Areas of North-western Nigeria. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 2007:2, 515-521.

. Filazi A, Baskaya R, Kun C, & Hismiogullar SE Metal Concentration in Tissue of the Black Sea Fish Mugil auratus from Sinopklimari. Turkey. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2003:22, 85-87.

. Clemente R, Dickinson NM, & Lepp NW. Mobility of Metals and Metalloids in a Multi-Element Contaminated Soil 20 Years after Cessation of the Pollution Source Activity. Environmental Pollution, 2008:155(2), 254-261.

. Pandey J, & Pandey U. 2008. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Dietary Vegetables and Cultivated Soil Horizon in Organic Farming System in Relation to Atmospheric Deposition in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Region of India. Journal of Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 2008: 1-14.

. De-Vries W, Romkens PF, & Schutze G. Critical Soil Concentrations of Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in View of Health Effects on Humans and Animals. Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Journal, 2007:191, 91-130.

. Appel, C. and Ma, L. (2002): Concentration, pH, Surface Charge effects on Cadmium and Lead Sorption in Three Tropical soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31:581-589.

. Manceau, A., Lanson, B., Schlegel, M.L., Harge, J.C., Musso, M., Eybert-Berard, L., Hazemann JL, Chateigner D, & Lamble GM. (2000). Quantitative Zn Speciation in smelter-Contaminated Soils by EXAFS spectroscopy. American Journal of Science, 2000: 300,289-343.

. Voegelin A, Barmettler K, & Kretzschmar R. Heavy Metal Release from Contaminated Soils: Comparison of Column Leaching And Batch Extraction Results. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2003:32(3),865-875.

. El-Ghawi UM, Al-Fakhri SM, Al-Sadeq AA, Bejey MM, & Doubali KK. The Level of Selenium and Some Other Trace Elements in Different Libyan Arable Soils using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Biological Transition Elements Resources. 2007: 119(1), 89-96.

. Soriano-Disla JM, Gómez I, Guerrero C, Navarro-Pedreño J, Mataix-Beneyto J & Jordan MM. Edaphic Factors Related to Heavy Metals and Nutrients Behaviour Following a Single Sewage Sludge Application. Geophysical Research Abstract, 2008:10, 00769.

. Zheng N, Q, Wang C, & Zheng DM. Health Risk of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu to the Inhabitants Around Huludao Zinc Plant in China via Consumption of Vegetables. Science of the Total Environment, 2007,383, 81-89.

. McLean JE, & Bledsoe BE. Behavior of metals in soils, EPA/540/S-92/018. 1992.

. Charlatchka R, & Cambier P. Influence of Reducing Conditions on Solubility of Trace Metals in Contaminated Soils. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 2000; 118,143-167.

. Adams VD. Water and Wastewater Examination Manual, Lewis Publishers Inc, USA. 264. 1991.

. Doll EC, & Lucas RE. Testing Soils for Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium. In Walsh, L.M. and Beaton, J.D. (eds.). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Soil Science Society of America, 1973:133-151.

. Walkey A, &d Black IA. An Examination of the Degrjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method. Soil Science, 1934:37, 29-38.

. Bouyougos GH. A Recalibration of the Hydrometer for Making Mechanical Analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal, 1965:43, 434 – 438.

. [Boulding JR. Description and Sampling of Contaminated Soils. A field Guide. 2nd Edn. 1965.

. Akan JC, Kolo BG, Yikala, BS, & Chellube ZM. Levels of Some Agricultural Pollution in Soil Samples from Biu Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Merit Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology, 2013:1(3), 071-081.

. LaBauve JM, Koluby-Amacher J, & Gambrell RP. The Effect of Soil Properties and a Synthetic Municipal Land fill Leachate on the Retention of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in Soil and Sediment Materials. Journal of World Pollution Control Federation, 1988: 379-385.

. Lund LJ, Page AL, & Nelson CO. Movement of Heavy Metals below Sewage Disposal Ponds, Journal of Environmental Quality, 1976: 330-334.

. Davis RD, Charlton-Smith CH, Stark JH, & Campbell JA. Distribution of Metals in Grassland Soils Following Surface Applications of Sewage Sludge. Environmental Pollution, 1988: 99-115.

. Schirado T, Vergara I, Schalscha EB, & Pratt PF. Evidence for Movement of Heavy Metals in a Soil Irrigated with Untreated Wastewater, Journal of Environmental Quality, 1986: 9-12.