BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM Ziziphus abyssinica HOCHST. EX A. RICH. (RHAMNACEAE) SEED OIL USING MODIFIED MAGNETIC SAND AS HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST

Authors

  • Bukar Wakil Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Federal University, Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria
  • Onen Alfred Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.
  • Bukar Zanna Department of Chemistry, Borno State University, Nigeria
  • Joseph Clement Akan Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
  • James Yakubu Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
  • Mohammed Goni Department of Remedial and General Studies, Mohammed Goni College of Legal and Islamic Studies, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
  • Umar Tanko Mamza Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Keywords:

Ziziphus abyssinica; Biodiesel; Catalyst; X-ray Diffraction (XRD); Seed Oil

Abstract

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible oil) and animal fats. This study aimed to produce biodiesel from Zizipus abyssinica using magnetic sand as heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst was characterized using both physical and X-ray diffraction, (XRD) techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyzed the crystal structure and particle size in order to obtain information on the surface area of catalyst. Physicochemical analysis of Zizipus abyssinica seed oil revealed that ash content was 0.04 %, specific gravity (0.98), moisture content (0.07 %), acid value (4.38 %), free fatty acid (2.19 %), viscosity (4.93 cSt) and pH 6.8.  The energy dispersive X-ray of magnetic sand revealed that silicon and potassium have the higher atomic and weight concentration while iron and titanium show no concentration as presented. The characterization results revealed high atomic concentration of Si (77.14 %), followed by K (10.92 %), Al (4.77 %), Ca (1.50%), Fe (1.36 %), S (1.11%), Ag (0.66 %), Mg (0.60 %), Zr (0.60 %) and Na (0.27 %). The main peaks of 19.40, 21.50 250 270, 280, 28.80, 370. 400, 40.70, 50.70, 55.30, 60.30, 650 and 690 were all present in the XRD spectrum of' Sand/MgO, intensities have significantly increased. The size of the crystal was measured to be 100 μm with uniform distribution. The variation of amount of catalyst [W%] was methyl ester yield, the most notable catalyst used in producing biodiesel is the homogeneous alkaline catalyst which is due to their higher kinetic reaction rates.  The magnetic sand was found to exhibit catalytic activity in the conversion of Ziziphus abyssinica seed oil to its methyl-ester as further proved by FT – IR analysis. A discovery such as this is indeed an addition to the indigenous catalyst that are cheaper and easily accessible.

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2024-06-22 — Updated on 2024-06-20

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