PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF Melastomastrum capitatum (VAHL.) FERN. (MELASTOMATACEAE) LEAF EXTRACT

Authors

  • Ukwubile, C. Anes1* and Milagawanda, H. Hananiya2

Keywords:

Melastomastrum capitatum; Antioxidant; Antidiabetic; Phenolics; Yeast cells.

Abstract

Melastomastrum capitatum (Vahl.) Fern. is a shrub found in wet areas in the Mambilla Plateau and Southern parts of Nigeria. The leaf has been used as a cure for many diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammations and other diseases. In an attempt to provide scientific justification for the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials, the present study was carried out. The phytochemical and metallic contents were evaluated using standard procedures, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays while in vitro antidiabetic activity was evaluated by glucose uptake by yeast cells method.  Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids in the extracts. The high amount of aluminium (Al) metal was detected with a value of 1682.14 mg/kg while other metals such as Mg, Na, and K are between 24.16 to 76.11 mg/kg. Among the three extracts, ethyl acetate (EF) exhibited the highest antidiabetic and antioxidant activities followed by methanol extract (MF). The EF showed also the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of 80.10 ± 2.01 mg GAE/g and 45.25 ± 1.01 mg RE/g respectively while the MF had 58.92 ± 1.01 mg GAE/g and 25.14 ± 1.02 mg RE/g respectively. Also, the EF exhibited a 72.14% of DPPH scavenging activity reduction and 69.03% of ABTS scavenging activity reduction at 800 µg/mL. A concentration-dependent in vitro antidiabetic activity was shown in glucose uptake of yeast cells with the highest glucose uptake of 80.10 mM seen in the EF. This value was significant (p<0.05) when compared to the control metronidazole at concentrations of 2.5 to 40 µg/mL. The study showed that M. capitatum leaf extracts possess antioxidant and antidiabetic activities which affirm the use of the plant in folkloric medicine.

Keywords: Melastomastrum capitatum; Antioxidant; Antidiabetic; Phenolics; Yeast cells.

Author Biography

Ukwubile, C. Anes1* and Milagawanda, H. Hananiya2

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

2 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

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2024-06-20 — Updated on 2024-07-19

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